Accessibility at ISU: Developing Digital Content for All

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- [Zayira] Welcome, everybody. This is the third session on a series of workshops that ELO, Engineering, Liberal Arts and Science, Online Program, CELT, Student Disability Resources Office. Am I missing anybody? The web accessibility coordinator, started coordinating over the summer. With that, I hope that everybody has identified themselves already, but if you haven't, we have red name tags for Instructional Developers and blue name tags for Web Developers. It's been a collaborative exercise, and I'm really happy because, if there's one thing I know, is that I don't know it all, especially about accessibility, which just takes different forms in different contexts. So we have today here, we're gonna collaborate along with Dena Fife, who works with the Brenton Center, as she's a specialist in accessibility with the Brenton Center, Dena. Ann Greazel, who has been so gracious as to collaborate a lot with my office, and she works with the Bio IT Group. Is that correct? Okay, Pinar Arpaci, she's part of ELO, isn't she? Pinar... And then, Jacob Petersen, who's also been very instrumental in helping us, with ELO. So, with that, let's talk about, not badges, the agenda. So basically, what we're gonna do is we're gonna talk about what, what’s accessibility, or digital accessibility specifically; and how to do it, really not comprehensive, because, you know, it's very in-depth, but we are wanting to prioritize things on what we're gonna cover here today, is kinda like the first tier of things that you can do really easily to address accessibility in your own roles; and then we're gonna do a hands-on, so that you guys don't get bored.

- So what is digital accessibility? And when I talk about accessibility, many times people think about web accessibility as its correct term, but what I've done and what the community has done is that they have basically broadened the scope, because as technology develops, we come across a lot more digital content that's out there. It's not necessarily residing in the web, and then we need to take into account that users might end up using that content, somehow it's gonna end up attached to an email, and therefore we have to take into account accessibility for that kind of content. So, the ramp. Whenever you see a ramp, and somebody asks you about accessibility, what do you think? What comes to mind? Anybody?

- [Participant 1] Handicap?

- [Participant 2] Handicap?

- [Participant 3] Was it part of the original design?

- [Zayira] A part..

- [Participant 3] It wasn't part of the original design.

- [Zayira] And what's that telling us? As an add-on, probably? Anybody else?

- [Participant 3] Physical disabilities.

- [Zayira] Physical disabilities. So, the thing is that, initially, the Universal Design Movement started, which started in the '80s, was part of the architecture field, so it was bound to, basically, solve or address the needs of persons with disabilities in the physical realm. So, when I talk about digital accessibility nowadays, I think about it as the ramp for the web. 'Cause we're basically opening the doors of the web and of digital content to users with disabilities, but not only users with disabilities, because digital accessibility is, it's a good business. It makes web sites, it makes the digital content that might end up in the web, more searchable and more, the search-engine optimization aspect of it, it's benefited. So, it's not only good, in terms of, it's a moral kind of code that we have to serve persons with disabilities, but it makes good business sense as well. It's not only good for persons with disabilities, but it's good for the users who might be using our website in a mobile, going through whatever context, and there's a lot of light, and if they have good contrast in whatever content they have, they can view it more effectively. So it's good in that sense. It's good in the business sense and it's good in the legal sense, as you might know. There is a few different laws at the Federal level that apply to having our content, our digital content, our web content to be accessible to persons with disabilities. So Ann is gonna talk to you about this.

- [Ann]Excuse me. I just had a frog in my throat, I don't know why. So, again my name is Ann Greazel. It's nice to be here with you today. And the next slide we have here is about color blindness, and really it's here to serve as an example, because there are several different types of online testing that you can do, really to help you empathize with those that may have, for example, color blindness, or other things, such as sound. There's different tools online so that you can hear what someone who has difficulty hearing might actually experience in different environments. So, this is really here to show you that these tools do exist online, and we will dive into these a little bit later, just some more. But if you click on the next button, you can see that we just put the digital access website into this tool, and you can very easily click through the different types of color blindness that someone might have, and there is a significant percentage of people that have color blindness, and I believe it's more prevalent in men, so there's statistics on that, to really pay attention to what colors you're using, and to use these simulators to help you understand what someone might be seeing.

- [Zayira] The point on this is that, if you're curious about learning more about how people with disabilities experience different things, the content that you're putting together, there is many different tools that you may resort to out there. The digital access website has links to many of these that I have vetted myself, and it's a great exercise in terms of trying for you to understand and develop that empathy that you need when you're developing your content, so that you're aware, that your eyes are open, to the needs of those users. So, that's good. So, having talked about that, really briefly and really fast, let's stop here for a moment. Questions. I know that I really breezed through the legal stuff. I really didn't want to go in-depth into that. Do you have any questions about the laws that apply? Who can tell me what laws apply, in terms of digital accessibility? Anybody knows? Section 508, which belongs to the Rehabilitation Act of 1973, I believe it is. There is an Iowa law. There is a couple other ones. Jim, I see you like you want to contribute. Jim Koopman is the graduate assistant for the Office of Digital Access, so he's my graduate assistant. I don't like to say that, but...

- [Participant] Is it Section 504 that...

- [Zayira] There is, Section 504 might apply as well. The ADA-- The ADA, Americans with Disabilities Act, is the civil rights law that applies to having content being available in terms of equal access. So, we have to serve persons with disabilities in the same way we serve anybody else. It's not a matter of discriminating against the person with a disability when we put some content out there and it's not viable, or it's not usable, for that person. Does that help? Okay, so how to do, quote, unquote, digital accessibility. And we divide this content so that it may apply to, either or both, instructional developers and web developers, and we start with what, we've identified kind of like the easy fixes, or the easy things that you can do, you can incorporate into your development cycle, so that you are able to address accessibility. The first one is inaccessible images. So, what do we have here? We have an image. What happens when we put an image in a website? How do we make it accessible to a person with a disability who might be using the website with the screen reader. Anybody?

- [Participant] Alt tag.

- [Zayira] Alt tag; alt tag. So it shows here, Ann coded it correctly for me, I have to just put the alt. It shows here that, if you're coding it in the web, you should use an alt tag and not leave it open or empty if it has some content that lends some meaning to the user. You want to have that user with the visual disability who uses the screen reader to be able to have the same, arguably the same, kind of content that you're giving the user who can see the image. So, for those of you who work on instructional development, when do you come across this? Do you ever come across images in your instructional development work?

- [Participant] Absolutely.

- [Zayira] Absolutely. So you incorporate images in Blackboard. Anybody uses any other content development or content platform?

- [Attendee] Moodle.

- [Zayira] Moodle; anybody uses Modal here? Okay.

- [Participant] So the question is, if you have an image on a website that does not add to the content of the website, it's just a, something, a visual enhancement, do we add an alt tag to that? What is the best practice? What does it say? Jim?

- [Jim] The law says that only decorative images are exempt. If it doesn't add any kind of meaning at all, in or out of context, it doesn't need to have an alt tag of any kind, but that the best practice would be to tag every image, and think about the philosophy of, why did I use it if it doesn't add anything to your site and other type factors. There's also the issue of saturation. You don't want to inundate people with too much information if it doesn't matter.

- [Zayira] Yeah, actually... Go ahead, were you going to ask something? I came across a study of 16, a study that was conducted on 16 screen reader users who were blind, and they were confronted with cases where they had people who had coded their decorative images with, decorative image for this, decorative image for that, and it was painstaking for them to have to go through that. It's content that is not necessary for them at all. It doesn't lend anything to the experience. So... Do you want to ask something?

- [Ann] No, I think that it's good conversation. In the team that I'm working with, we've talked a lot about alt tags, and we have gone back and forth about whether or not, on a website, an alt tag should be required, due to the fact that a decorative image doesn't necessarily need an alt tag, and how to address that. So, essentially, I can't say that we're 100% there, but we're pretty darn close to making the decision that requiring them is the best thing, because essentially, when you look at the web content that we have, there aren't many web editors adding images that are not necessary or that are decorative. So, that's the way that we're leaning, but it's been a really fun conversation to have, and to really learn about that. So...

- [Dena] Well, the only other thing I would add is, if it is decorative in the web studying, you would do the alt equals sign and then null. Just the parentheses, so nothing would be there. But yeah, the things that I run across in our courses is, there are no alt tags. But I tell our faculty that, if they are describing the image, because some do describe the image within the content, that is also okay. So, if they're captioning it, or describing the image, within the actual content, that is okay, and you don't need that because it's being redundant. The important thing is, you just wanna convey the meaning and the function of the image.

- [Zayira] Anybody else has some other insights?

- [Participant 3] Extension and Outreach has started requiring image alt text on all of our new sites, for the pure simple fact that our editors come in with no knowledge or training whatsoever; they're just your everyday public user with no idea what they're doing, so we found it a lot easier to just start requiring it, so that they didn't have a choice, and trying to train them in the best way to actually present the alt text.

- [Zayira] Has there been any pushback, because they might be confronted with, oh, I wanna just upload a decorative image, for instance, and--

- [Participant 3] No, we no.

- [Zayira] So, for those of you who are web developers here, I know that many of you are, do not end up being content updaters, to put it somehow, so there's ways of implementing accessibility so that your content editors have the ability to implement something that is accessible.

- [Ann] I had one more comment. What I've recently learning while talking to Zayira and this group here, is that, it used to be that I thought, in the alt text, you should put, photo of, right? Like, photo of a student in the class, and what happens is those of you that have experience with a screen reader can probably add to this, but I would assume that you're hearing, photo of student in class, photo of students outside by the Campanile, photo of students studying, and so that gets very repetitive, and can be quite, I'm sure, annoying. So, although we thought we were doing the right thing, that's essentially not the right thing to do, so just using the actual text without photo of. The other is, if you have a photo that has text overlaid, so you might have a designer that's given you a photo with text on top of it, that says, I don't know, if it said, Sally looking at the instructor or something, then that should be the exact alt text that you use, Sally looking at the instructor, because at the moment that you put text over the image, you have now addressed that to be important. So you want to make sure that your alt text represents that importance.

- [Jim] Yeah, you're introducing a, it's a very deep discussion about alt tagging, 'cause there's a science and an art to it, but I don't want that to be intimidating, because alt tagging is in the spirit of accessibility, so don't let it leave out your images and everything doesn't have to be that intimidating, but I do it all the time. It's something worth researching.

- [Zayira] Yeah. There are best practices, and we can go more in-depth in a separate session on alt tagging specifically, but for the time being, what I end up telling people who approach me and are asking me about these things and in the most succinct way, but I try to convey to them is, try to be empathetic; what do you want the user to get from that image, ultimately, and try to be succinct, because if you comment it and you try to be over-descriptive, then it's gonna be a bother, rather. So, empathy, again, we're gonna see it in a few minutes, it's queen, that's how I put it. So, here, in this case, we have that, we're showing a picture of students, and, depending on the context, too, you might want to label it differently, but for the sake of, you know, having a succinct description here, we decided to go with, students in class. Okay, any questions so far? 

- [Zayira] Okay, moving on. We go to the second thing that we can think about when we talk about easy fixes, and it's structure. It's something that you come across if you're a content editor, if even. If you're working on a Word document, you are putting together your content, and if you want it to be readable in a way that people can get at the flow, and what's important and what's not, you want to be able to create headings that are, you know, viable and that communicate the purpose of your document. So, what I did is that I took up a document that I have, and it's basically inaccessible right now because everything is at the same level. There is some bold here in some words, but what's the point of having that bold if we cannot differentiate what's more important and what's not? And I even included an image because, you know, frequently we come across documents where we insert images, and if we do that, Word has a way of creating an alternate text, alternate tag, and that exports to whatever we copy and paste to. So, once we tag that image in Word, arguably, you're gonna be able to tag or carry that tag to other contents. 

So, the best way that I can put together the content in a way that it's more readable and more accessible, even though the color is not really that clear, but we're not going to use this document to show in a PowerPoint presentation. So, we have a title, or a Heading 1, and for people who work in content in web development, Heading 1 is going to be an h1 tag, whereas, if you are working in a Word document, you're gonna go to the styles ribbon on the top of your Word application and you're gonna select the appropriate heading level for that. If you don't do that, if you style just by taking the font and increasing the point and changing the color manually, it's not gonna translate into proper coding, so it's not gonna be accessible. You have to do it through those styles that are predefined in Word. So, here we have that. We have all Heading 1, and we have the image. The image should have the alternate tag. So if you select it and go to Format Picture, and go to that menu that pops up to the right, and go to that third feature there, Size and Properties, you're gonna find that at the bottom there is the alternate text field, and you fill it out. That's the alternate text in Word, PowerPoint, Excel, any of the Microsoft Office Suite applications have that capacity. Any questions about this? Oh, the other thing that I included here is the list, a bulleted list with numbers, in web development it would be, how you code it, ul?

- [Participant 1] Yes--

- [Ann] Well, an unordered list or ordered list. Oh, well.

- [Zayira] So rather than having just mere points there, if you resort to the bullets in the Word document or in web development, it's better organized. And now, we're gonna talk about math equations. So, Pinar is going to talk to you about that.

- [Pinar] I don't know that we will have time to demonstrate the tool that I'm going to talk about, but what it does, basically, first of all, let me give you the content of the problem or the challenges we are facing. Usually, whenever we have a faculty that is coming from statistics department, math department, or economics, or any engineering faculty, we face the challenge of guiding them through how to actually translate their equations or sketches into Blackboard environment or any learning management system for that matter. So, what happens, usually, they have some sort of document that was created in PowerPoint, any Word document, or LaTeX file, and since retrieving the content from these file formats is kinda problematic when it comes to the equations or the sketches or images, I don't know the nomenclature that they use, they usually take a screenshot of that particular equation or the image and put it directly to Blackboard as uploading an image or inserting an image. Obviously, you can relate to the problem that this may create for a student with sight problem or students with, I don't know, like color blindness problems, so what happens, you can actually make this go away by integrating a tool called MathType. Many of our faculty's familiar to this particular program, if not this one, an open-source alternative of it, they usually use LaTeX to create their files. I see a couple of engineering faculty. They can back me up if I'm saying something wrong.

- [Participant] Put them on the spot!

- [Pinar] Yeah. And then, this tool is available free for ISU faculty, ISU staff, and ISU students, and you can ask your IT person to upload to your computer, and you can also direct your faculty to use this tool for free, otherwise they need to pay like 60 or 80 dollars, and what it does, basically, you create your equations on this and then just directly copy your equation from this program and then paste it to Blackboard, and it actually uptakes your equation properly. That probably you cannot do in a very short period of time that you can do with this software. If we have time, I would like to demonstrate the tool?

- [Zayira] I think we do.

- [Pinar] Okay. So, this is one of the examples from one of our math courses that we offered during this summer, and all the equations in this course, they were created by using MathType. And the instructor gave me the original LaTeX files that he created and he had a huge question bank and everything needed to be converted into Blackboard format, and hopefully he is going to use this course for a long time. So, as you can see, this is an intro class, so the equations are relatively not so complicated, we don't have the integrals or double integrals, but usually what happens, these are basically all, usually comes as images, but whenever I click edit, okay, I will be able to click on this, and then whenever I paste an equation from MathType, Blackboard turns them into images, but it actually adds the alt tag right here, image description, sorry, and then I pasted the description here in Notepad so that we can read. Basically, reads as fraction numerator 5 a y cubed over the denominator 9 b cubed d, you get my point. So, if I go to MathType and see the interface, so, this is how I write the equation, and all I need to do is just copy this and go to Blackboard and paste it, and everything will be done automatically by Blackboard.

- [Participant] That came from Blackboard, right?

- [Pinar] This I actually hand, I typed it here, but if you have an already-created LaTeX file, and if you are familiar with the LaTeX, you can actually just copy the code and paste it here, and again, copy it from here and paste it to Blackboard. It just takes, whenever you get used to the rhythm of doing this, it will take less and less time as you go on. So, the only thing that you need to pay attention is just changing the Preferences here. You go to Preferences, Cut and Copy Preferences, and the even cooler thing is this is actually compatible with many LMSs that we use in our institution, as well as Top Hat. So, you can go through-- Yep?

- [Participant] In Microsoft Equations, you can basically use options to put in alt text. Is that the challenge or what, if you're still doing that manually in Blackboard, right?

- [Pinar] Yeah. So the thing is whenever you create an equation in Microsoft Word, Microsoft Word does a lot in the background, but the thing is, you can actually integrate MathType into the Word, and then it will come as a ribbon, and then, if you create your equations by using MathType in Word, that will do it, but still you need to integrate MathType into the Word.

- [Participant] I guess I'm trying to understand what you mean by, it will do it, because you still manually providing the text for the alt text string.

- [Pinar] I'm not doing them manual, no.

- [Participant] Oh, I see, it provides it.

- [Pinar] Yeah, it provides it.

- [Participant] MathType is doing the formatting.

- [Pinar] Yeah, yeah. Otherwise, I cannot possibly do that. I mean, I can read, I can solve this problem, but-- Yeah. No.

- [Participant] Okay, that makes sense; thank you.

- [Pinar] Any questions?

- [Participant 2] So there's no way to copy into that program, though? Because then in capture, you had to go in and type in all of those equations over again for the instructor.

- [Pinar] Or instructor needs to do that. It needs to be part of their work. They do it anyway. They create those equations in Word or in PowerPoint, but the thing is, it's like, it's a tedious job to copy and paste those equations or recreate them for that matter, because you can actually recreate them in Blackboard.

- [Participant 2] But if we had, like, a textbook...

- [Pinar] Yeah, yeah.

- [Participant 2] Yeah, okay.

- [Pinar] Actually, that's one of the first things, when I met with the students from their organization, ADA, Association for Disability Awareness, right?

- [Participant] Alliance.

- [Zayira] Alliance; I always mix them up. When I met with them, two of them, at least, who use either ZoomText or whatever, they were having to resort to people readers, because, I think, JAWS doesn't really read, or at least, they weren't coded correctly in their textbooks, so they were having to resort to their friends to have them read for them, the equations. So, that's an important thing that our students are coming across with. And, even in the web, we can resort to MathML, so this is a workaround that we don't need to code into MathML, if we're dealing with that kind of content. 

- [Zayira] So, when we want to link text, and you probably have seen this; this has been already publicized through inside Iowa State, but it's good to always have a review. If you look at this, this is a website actually provided by the W3C, the WorldWide Web Consortium. They have a website, where they have a version of a before and after, inaccessible and accessible, so I resorted to it because it's really practical, and I just did a screenshot of it, and it shows how there's all these links that say, more, more, more, but refer to different content. So what happens when you find those links, Jim? When you're getting to a page and you're using your screen reader to what researches have called a listening-to or scanning while listening or something like that. You go to the links and what does it do?

- [Jim] I go to the links and I scream.

- [Pinar] Scream? Because you have a bunch of links that say the same thing and you have no clue, what they're about?

- [Jim] One of my first strategies to go through a web page is to bring up a dialog that tells me an order of links, and, you know, it's in alphabetical order and if it says, more, there's gonna be 12 links that say, more, but no context. This, obviously, using a screen reader to consume a web page is a lot slower, so we need to use those tools to sort through the content, but if I'm looking for information that's only available in context and then it says, more, it's no good at all. I don’t. I give up.

- [Zayira] Even for users who are looking, viewing this content visually, it's not really usable. It's a matter of usability even, it's accessibility as well, but it's both. Anybody could benefit from knowing what's behind those links, so, in the before example that the W3C offers here, we have links that are informative, they're descriptive, they're telling you what are you gonna find in that link if you click there, so we have three columns and, in the website called CityLights, and we have, in each column we have a link to continue, to find out more information, but each of the links has, provides information, descriptive information about they're all about. So, that's the way of doing links, not be limiting, not having links that are named the same, not having, being descriptive and being contextual and being succinct. 

- [Zayira] And then we come to the question of color, and there's very many different resources that you can find out there. Again, in the digital access website, you can find some of the ones we've tested and recommended. The point is that color needs to be taken into account from the very beginning. You need to make decisions about color in terms of their contrast. The high-contrasting colors communicate better in contexts where there is a lot of light and where your users are mobile. Users with visual disabilities benefit from having high contrast, so that content is more visible. Users who are aging and need to use readers like I do benefit from having high contrast. So, I guess this is, it's not, I don't need to go into it any more. Any questions? There's tools for testing your colors, to be able to determine if they're the right contrast to comply with the law. Our guidelines at Iowa State is that we have to comply with, according to what we've seen in the legal settlements, we have to comply with web-content accessibility guidelines provided by the W3C 2.0 at the level AA, and if you have questions about that, we can talk more in-depth in a little while. Go ahead, you have a question.

- [Participant] I was just wondering if those same tools apply. Is there a way to do that with PowerPoint slides, or any kind of annotational software tool?

- [Zayira] You have to, in those tools, for the most part, you have to know the hex codes, or the CMYK or the RGB codes for the colors, so I don't know that PowerPoint has a native checker other than the accessibility checker that I'm gonna show in a little while, but, Laura?

- [Laura] There is a downloadable checker on both Microsoft and on Windows, Windows and Apple, that you can download, and it's called like Pachiello, and you can download it and there's actually a tool in there that you can use the eye-drop to grab the colors, so you don't have to find the hex color, you can actually use it and do a quick check on it. Yes, it is. All these things are on the digital access website, and next week we will be referring to it a lot. So...

- [Zayira] Thank you for helping me with that. I didn't know they have the dropper. Oh, cool. Also, another thing that I forgot, you cannot only communicate something through color; that's against the guidelines. So, if you have a link, and it's in a color like I have on my website right now, but it's different to signal that it's a link, and it's not communicated to some other way, people aren't necessarily gonna know, so you have to signal other ways, rather than just by color, referring to color. Is that...

- [Zayira] Okay, so now we have Dena.

- [Dena] So, I have a short video, and we're just gonna watch the first 30 seconds, and I want you to tell me what the video's about. Okay, can anybody tell me what the video is about?

- [Participant] I don't know, but it's like a silent.

- [Participant 2] She's asking, why are we here together, and we're here to teach, and they're talking about students.

- [Dena] They are talking about students, but, I'll replay, but it's talking about the importance of captions, and why captions are important. Here, I'll just go ahead and play the rest of the video. So, again, we're talking about empathy, and with captions, there are best practices. If it's an audio file, you need to provide a transcript. If it's a video, you need to provide captions and/or a transcript. If it's in the public domain, it has to have captions, no ifs, ands, or buts. Some best practices that we're moving towards at the Brenton Center, I'm recommending our faculty work with a script, start out with a script, and then we can take that script and use it as a transcript, and then also take, copy the text, and import it in, too, so, we have the captions as well. I'm trying to think... We've also added, in some of our student evaluations, we've added questions about, would students use the captions, and overwhelmingly a lot of the students said, yes, they would use the captions and the transcript files, mostly for, and University of Wisconsin has done a lot of research, as well as Portland, or University of Oregon, on captions, and they have found that it improves retention, learner retention rates, as well as helps with vocabulary building for students, especially in tough courses, that they're using--

- [Participant] Speak briefly because we have a little time for

- [Dena] Okay, so--

- [Participant 2] How do you create the captions, a vendor?

- [Dena] Oh, yeah, we use Rev. Rev charges a dollar a minute. It's one of the cheapest tools that we've found and we found that the accuracy is really well, as well as the turnaround time. We had 48 lectures captioned, and they gave it to us within a week.

- [Zayira]  Have we started a conversation at the institutional level to provide-- We've started the conversation at the institutional level to devise if we need to provide a central solution, a central pot of money to work on captions, so that conversation is already going on, just so you know. And Jacob, please...

- [Jacob] Hi, I'm Jacob. I work over at the ELO, and we do a lot of asynchronous online courses, and so we usually have a situation where instructors already have an online video made for the course, but no captions, and so we try to think of different workarounds. One we're talking about doing is doing, like, Rev, and so you can pay to have the transcripts done. The other thing we're trying lately is using Dragon Naturally Speaking, and it's not really guaranteed to work. We were trying to play around with it, and for our internal tests, we noticed that the time it takes to do it reduces over time, so, as we transcribe that recording, retrain Dragon; it actually improves. So, I think when I first did it, my own trial took about 21 minutes, and then, like, the last video I did was like nine minutes to do the whole process, so it kinda speeds up as you train it more to your voice and style, but basically, essentially, what it is, well, I guess I'm not gonna show it, but, if you want to go to the digital access website, we have a video on there, but basically, what you do is you take your video, you pull out the mp3s with something like VideoLAN Client, or some other media player can do that, then you would have to have Dragon Naturally Speaking Professional and give it the mp3, you know, turn it into a transcript, you go through and make the edits, and then you tell Dragon to learn from the new edit you made, and then, from there, you just take your original video, and the easiest thing is in YouTube, you don't have to leave it on YouTube, you can download it again as mp4. You upload your video into YouTube, and then you add that transcript from Dragon, it auto-syncs, and you're good to go. You can embed into your course from there, or download the mp4 and put it elsewhere. So if you wanna play around with that, so if you guys want to try it, feel free to contact us. We'll be interested to hear your story.

- [Participant] When you're thinking about the captions, always use the punctuation. Sometimes we'll see captions that, yeah, the words might be correct, but there's no punctuation, and if you can't hear it, you can't tell where a sentence would end. So, we also have a lot of hard-of-hearing students on campus that, you can have conversations with them, and you think they don't need those captioned videos, but they might be someone who can't hear F’s, S’s, you know, different letters, and then when it comes to, if they're watching a video, they really can't understand it, and they really have difficulty with, you know, vocabulary, you know, trying to comprehend and put it all together, actually, what is the word that he said, or she said, and the instructor said.

- [Ann] Yes, that's good, thank you. The next thing we're gonna talk about, very briefly, is the fact that consistent navigation is important, so essentially what that means is that your main navigation does not jump around. So, when you move to another page on the website, your main navigation stays in the same location, okay? You can see that we have a description here, where you can actually read more about this standard, for the AA standard, and, in this example, you can see that the navigation has a sub-menu to it. When you go to the next one, you can see that the main menu stayed where it is, but the sub-menu changed, so that the user knows where they're at on your website, and that's essentially the basic need, so-- Yeah?

- [Zayira] I'm gonna talk very briefly about testing. So, many of you probably know there is an accessibility checker on every Microsoft Office Suite application, so Word, PowerPoint, you can to go File, and then there is some menu item that allows for you to conduct an accessibility check, and it gives you a report and it gives you, even, information on how to remedy it, whatever problems you have.

- [Ann] We just wanted to mention a couple more. We're gonna be getting into this in a couple minutes, but there's the WAVE accessibility checker, where you can put your website into this checker and then, end up getting a result. So we put the world's worst website in here, and you can see that there's a lot of errors, but this will actually help you identify the places that you need to change on your site. And also, so, with WAVE, essentially, you get, somebody told me that you can actually use WAVE, I think, to test multiple pages as a download, okay, as a download. So if you download WAVE, and use it, it works a little bit more efficiently, however, Tawdis will actually work online, where you're not just changing the homepage, or it's not just checking the homepage, it will actually check the pages on your site, and when you run that, you can actually see the errors. I will also mention, briefly, some of you might have used Siteimprove, but I've really had good luck with that, however, it is really expensive. So, with Siteimprove it will also help you prioritize, but I think that by looking at the standards online, you can actually self-determine these priorities pretty easily. 

- [Ann] And, did you want to talk briefly about personas, or do you want me just to-- Okay, we're just keep rolling, so personas is something you can use for your help in empathizing with users, and the empathy map is also something. So, this PowerPoint will be made available, I believe, so you can look at these more in-dept. (Zayira speaks unmiked} Yeah, that was really quick.

- [Zayira] Yeah, we had allotted 20 minutes, but, I mean, we thought we were gonna have enough time. So, we want you now to take whatever teams you have right now, but if you guys first need to divide into web developers and instructional developers. So, all the blue people to my left, and all the red people to my right, So, we don't have that much time left, and I would like to hear back from you what you have to report. I saw that some of you have already tested at least one page. First thing, that Dena reminded me, it's important to, sadly, understand that the automatic tests do not discover, basically, about 30%, anywhere from 30 to 50, you know, figures change, depending on who uses them. So, the human review, the human expert review, it's more important, because sometimes these things even find things that are not really findings. The errors that they quote might not be errors, per se. So, the testing tool is a good starting point; it's not the whole thing. So, who wants to go? Anybody wants to report?

- [Pinar] So one thing that we realized, our team, our table was talking about it, when we were talking about the alt tagging the images, so one thing that we do, it's a common practice in our office, we actually alt tag our icons, the course icons, the module icons, that we shouldn't be doing. So, that's the takeaway from me for today.

- [Zayira] Okay, instructional developer that found out contextually that they built icons and they maybe shouldn't, because it's redundant. Anybody else?

- [Participant 2] I used the web tool, or the WAVE Chrome extension, it worked really well. I tested the W-4 form inside AccessPlus, which is something I worked on a couple years go, and there're some really obvious things, like the buttons don't have labels, so you couldn't tell to pick, like, single or married; that's something that would be really easy to change.

- [Zayira] Excellent. Forms are one another thing that web development teams put together a lot here, and forms need to be labeled. I didn't cover that because it might not be tier one type thing, but it's important that the labels for the fields are there, and the recommendation best practice lately for those of you who code and use HTML5, don't use placeholders, because they seem to confuse the user. Anybody else? Don't use placeholders, that's the recommendation, even usability-wise, because a lot of people submit the forms thinking that it's already filled. Thank you so much for being here today, and we'll schedule more of these.